Nd: YVO4 crystal belongs to the tetragonal system, positive uniaxial crystal. Nd: YVO4 crystal has actually been extensively identified as a vital laser material given its growth in 1966.
Nonetheless, the researchers found flaws in the scattering center, absorption color center, etc. It is, as a result, impossible to grow high-grade crystals of the size required for a flash pump.
Luckily, it has excellent absorption and gains to the wavelength of diode radiation. As well as the transmission area is substantial. The output laser has great polarization qualities. These suffice to cover the shortcomings of its tiny growth dimension.
Nd: YVO4 crystal has superb properties. Compared with another commonly used Nd: YAG crystal (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal), its pump broadband is a lot more extensive. The absorption data transfer effectiveness is greater. The boosted discharge cross-section is more extensive as well as has exceptional advancement value. Nd: YVO4 crystals are used combined with nonlinear optical crystals such as LBO crystals, BBO crystals, KTP crystals, etc. It can understand frequency-doubling conversion as well as readjust working wavelength. The all-solid-state laser constructed from Nd: YVO4 crystal can outcome near-infrared light, green light, blue light, ultraviolet light, and more.
- Regarding 808 nm pump bandwidth, regarding the Nd: YAG 5 times
- The section at 1064 nm of the stimulated exhaust of radiation is an Nd: YAG three times.
- Light damages threshold is low, with high incline efficiency
- Uniaxial crystal axis, the result of linear polarization
Compared to the traditional Nd: YAG crystal, Nd: YVO4 has the advantages of a much more substantial absorption coefficient, higher emission cross section, polarization absorption and exhaust attributes, larger absorption transmission capacity, and also insensitivity to the temperature change of the diode. For that reason, it is commonly utilized in LD-pumped solid-state lasers.
However, it has a huge discharge cross-section and a brief upper energy lifetime. The power storage space ability of Nd: YVO4 is much lower than that of Nd: YAG. Not conducive to high energy, peak power of the Q – switched pulse result. Their advantages are limited to constant wave outcome, high average control, and also high conversion efficiency. In addition, the thermal conductivity of Nd: YVO4 is extremely tiny, only fifty percent of that of Nd: YAG. For that reason, it is not for attaining high-power continual wave output.
Neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd: YVO4) crystal is a type of laser crystal with outstanding performance, which is appropriate for producing a laser diode pump, specifically a low-power laser. Compared with Nd: YAG, Nd: YVO4 has a higher absorption coefficient as well as a bigger stimulated emission cross-section.
Laser diode-pumped Nd: YVO4 crystals are incorporated with LBO, BBO, KTP, and also other crystals with high nonlinear coefficients. It can accomplish far better frequency-doubling conversion effectiveness. It can result from near-infrared, green, as well as blue ultraviolet as well as solid-state lasers.
Nd: YVO4 crystals can be commonly made use of in optical interaction, industrial laser processing, laser ranging, semiconductor discovery, information storage, screen, laser printing, clinical assessment, machinery, clinical study as well as various other areas.
In addition, Nd: YVO4 diode-pumped solid-state lasers are swiftly replacing conventional water-cooled ion lasers and lamp-pumped lasers out there, specifically in regard to miniaturization and also single longitudinal setting outcomes.
In the 21st century, several downstream markets of Nd: YVO4 crystal are growing, and the application range of Nd: YVO4 crystal is frequently increasing with obvious performance advantages.
In the 1960s, Nd: YVO4 crystal was developed. It was extracted from salt metavanadate thaw by the cooling technique. The dimension of the Nd: YVO4 crystal grown by this approach was little. Since then, the development process of Nd: YVO4 crystal has actually been advanced, such as the Zhilar method, flame melting method, floating zone growth method, Bryman method, and also the pull method. Today, the development approaches of Nd: YVO4 crystal is numerous. The illustration technique is the mainstream Nd: YVO4 crystal growth procedure, which can expand big, top-notch crystals.
4.1 Pulling method
Nd3+: YVO, crystal melting point is extremely high (about 1820 ℃), must utilize gold-dependent crucible growth, gold-dependent crucible will certainly be oxidized at high temperature, have to make use of a neutral gas (hydrogen) to protect the crucible.
In this way, growing in an anoxic environment, the melted part will certainly decompose into low-priced vanadium oxide (part of YVO4 will certainly disintegrate into YVO3), and also oxygen deficiency will take place in the crystal, leading to the generation of the color center.
Growing in an oxygen-rich ambiance will result in severe oxidation of the crucible. The minimized episcopes form incorporations inside the crystal. This will certainly bring about solid thaw volatilization, leading to component deviation.
By using various expanding environments in various stages, the oxygen shortage in the crystal can be supplemented, the volatilization of raw materials can be hindered, the single-phase growth of the crystal can be guaranteed, and also the crystal can not be blackened or spread due to oxygen shortage as a result of hypoxia.